disliking the classification label because the perspective is time based)
One Question - Is the term collaboration
defined as mutual engagement and/or paid for services rendered
such as Phillip Johnson, I.M.Pei, for example, are most often not the sole
designer of their works, although usually receiving credit as the single
creator, even though having had a multitude of people working with them on
The following (not in chronological order) are some important collaborations
that have not been credited as such.
Actress Hedy Lamarr and musician George Antheil—
They developed a secret communication system derived from "frequency
hopping". This invention eventually led to the creation of today's
cell-phone technology. After their patent expired in 1957,
SylvaniaElectronic Systems adopted the concept as a basis for secure
Lamarr-Antheil patent as the basis of the the concept behind the principal
anti-jamming device used today, for example, in the U.S. government's
Milstar defense communication satellite system.*
*Information Source: American Heritage of Invention & Technology, Spring
1997, Volume 12/Number 4
Rosalind Franklin, whose x-ray images of DNA structure led to the discovery
of the double helix. in 1953, without Franklin's consent, her dna
photographs were given to James Watson, and in 1962 Watson, Harry Crick, and
Maurice Wilkins were awarded the Nobel prize for their discoveries regarding
molecular structures—discoveries that would have been impossible without the
work of Franklin.
Hypatia 370 A.D. made astronomy instruments / piano-sphere & astrolabe.
Father and she produced version of Euclid's elements, now used for all later
editions of Euclid. she was murdered by christians who feared her
Pythias of Assos, Aristotle's wife, assisted her husband in compiling an
encyclopedia on botany, physiology and biology, and wrote books on
generation and histology.
Letter march 21,1901:Albert Einstein writes to future wife Mileva Maric
"i'll be so happy and proud when we together shall have brought our work on
relative motion victoriously to a conclusion!"
Letter dec. 28,1901 Albert Einstein writes to future wife Mileva Maric "when
you become my dear little wife, we'll diligently work on science together so
we don't become old philistines, right?"
1901:Albert Einstein writes to future wife Mileva Maric "i'll be so happy
and proud when we together shall have brought our work on relative motion
victoriously to a conclusion!"
1786 Caroline Lucretia Herschel discovered a comet and later found seven
more. she and her brother discovered Uranus
1922 Gerty cori & husband Carl work at N.Y. Institute/diseases. He was
advised to end collaboration. "it would be detrimental to his career". 1947:
They share Nobel prize/medicine for metabolism of glycogen work.
Dr. Lise meitner went to berlin to study with max planck, where she began
collaborating with Otto Hahn on radioactive substances -- he doing the
chemistry, and she, the physics. by 1937, dr. meitner and dr. hahn had
identified at least nine different radioactive elements. however, with the
rise of hitler, she fled to Sweden, continuing her collaboration with dr.
Hahn by correspondence. meeting clandestinely in Copenhagen in 1939, Dr.
Meitner and dr. Hahn planned a new round of experiments on a uranium product
they thought was radium. The experiments provided evidence for "nuclear
Re: New important collaboration productions I define as bringing about new
The following are some that quickly surface:
Architects/artists - Hani Rashid and Liz Couture - Asymptote
and Scofidio, Archigram, Acconci Studio, Gilbert and George, Blue Man Group,
Robert Wilson and Phillip Glass, Robert Wilson and Hanayagi.
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